International NDAs: Key Considerations and Points to Remember


With a growing globalized economy like India, the opportunities for international business partnerships, investments, and employment are also increasing. Most of these professional relationships require a Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA). Therefore, it is imperative to understand how NDAs with foreign individuals or companies function. This article will explore different scenarios where such an NDA may be necessary and discuss best practices for drafting and signing an NDA with a foreign person or company.

Best Practices for an International NDA

While the general framework of a Non-Disclosure Agreement(NDA) remains the same, here are a few points to include to tailor it according to an International agreement.

  1. Jurisdictional Considerations: When signing a Non-Disclosure Agreement(NDA) with a foreign person or company, it is important to determine the jurisdiction where the NDA will be enforced. This includes choosing a governing law and a suitable jurisdiction for dispute resolution. It is generally advisable to choose the jurisdiction of the country where your company is headquartered.
  2. Enforceability: It is also important to ensure that the NDA is legally enforceable in various jurisdictions. This can be done by adhering to the specific legal requirements and principles applicable to contract law, including the elements of offer, acceptance, consideration, and intention to create legal relations.
  3. International Trade Laws and Regulations: It is important to ensure that the NDA complies with international trade laws, export control regulations, and any relevant cross-border legal requirements related to the transfer of sensitive information across different jurisdictions.
  4. Interpretation Differences: When signing an NDA with a foreign person or company, it is important to be aware of the potential for different interpretations of legal terms and clauses due to cultural nuances and language variations. To avoid any misinterpretations, it is important to use clear, unambiguous, and culturally neutral language in the NDA.
  5. Translation Accuracy: If the NDA is not in your native language, it is important to have it translated by a professional translator or legal expert who has a deep understanding of both legal terminology and the cultural context. It is also important to verify the translated version for accuracy and consistency with the original terms.
  6. Legal and Cultural Context Alignment: It is also important to ensure that the NDA aligns with both the legal requirements and cultural sensitivities of the jurisdictions involved. This means considering any cultural-specific provisions or legal nuances that may need to be included or adapted to suit the specific cultural and legal context of the parties entering into the agreement.

Issues and Challenges with International NDAs

Opening up to international NDAs, you may possibly leave yourself vulnerable. Therefore it is important to be aware of the risks and learn to take the right measures.

  1. Cultural and Language Barriers: Risk of miscommunication or misinterpretation of NDA terms and clauses due to cultural differences and language barriers, potentially leading to misunderstandings, disputes, or breaches of the agreement.
    Therefore it is imperative that the parties included take the necessary time while drafting a Non-Dislcosure Agreement (NDA) to ensure that there is full clarity of the content.
  2. Geopolitical and Economic Instability: Risks associated with geopolitical tensions, economic instability, or changes in government policies, may impact the enforcement of the NDA and potentially lead to breaches, particularly in regions where political or economic situations are volatile or prone to sudden changes.
    Therefore it is advised to incorporate contingency clauses in the NDA that account for potential changes in government policies or economic conditions, outlining procedures for addressing such situations and mitigating associated risks.
  3. Data Privacy and Security Compliance Across Borders: The risk of non-compliance with varying data privacy and security regulations across different countries, which may result in legal penalties or reputational damage, particularly when sharing sensitive information across borders with differing data protection standards.
    Therefore, enhancing your cybersecurity with strong measures such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and routine security checks can help detect and resolve potential technological weaknesses that may put shared information at risk.
  4. Jurisdictional Disputes: Arguments about where to resolve disputes can be a major problem, especially when the parties involved are from different countries with different legal systems or when the NDA doesn’t clearly say where disputes should be resolved. This can lead to delays and extra costs, as the parties may need to go through a long and complicated legal process to decide where the dispute should be heard.
  5. Breach of Contract Allegations: Claims that a party has broken the NDA, such as by sharing confidential information without permission, not keeping promises about confidentiality, or violating the terms of the NDA, can also lead to disputes between the parties, which often result in legal battles or arbitration proceedings. If a breach of contract occurs, the party that was harmed may seek legal remedies such as monetary damages, a court order to stop the other party from doing something, or a specific performance, which means that the court orders the other party to do something they promised to do. However, the availability and effectiveness of these remedies may vary depending on the country where the dispute is resolved.
  6. Enforcement Challenges Across Borders: Even if the NDA is clear and well-written, there can be challenges related to enforcing the NDA across different international jurisdictions. Different countries have different interpretations of the law, different ways of enforcing contracts, and different legal remedies available, which can make it difficult to resolve disputes and enforce the terms of the agreement. For example, a party may be able to get a judgment against the other party in a court of law, but the judgment may be difficult or impossible to enforce in the other party’s country.

Overall, international NDAs can be complex and challenging to negotiate and enforce. It is important to be aware of the potential risks and challenges involved and to take steps to mitigate them. By carefully considering the jurisdictional, contractual, and enforcement implications of an international NDA, businesses can protect their interests and reduce the risk of disputes.

3 Important Tips to Manage International Confidentiality Agreements

  1. Regular communication and relationship building: The most important is to talk to your international partners regularly and build relationships with them. This will help you maintain open and honest communication, build trust, and show that you’re committed to upholding the NDA. Strong relationships can help prevent misunderstandings and disputes, leading to a more productive and long-lasting collaboration.
  2. Regular compliance audits and updates: Regularly check for compliance with international regulations, and make sure your NDA is up-to-date with the latest data privacy and security laws, trade regulations, and other legal requirements. This will help you avoid costly fines and other penalties.
  3. Robust data security measures: Invest in strong data security measures, like encryption, secure storage, and strict access controls. This will protect confidential information from breaches and unauthorized access when transferring or sharing data across borders.


As businesses expand across borders, the management of Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs) with international partners has become increasingly critical. Navigating the diverse legal landscape and prioritizing data security are essential components for successful NDA management. Additionally, fostering open communication and building strong relationships with international counterparts are key to building trust and preventing misunderstandings.

By prioritizing these strategies, businesses can:

  • Fortify their global operations
  • Foster seamless management of international NDAs
  • Establish a solid foundation for secure and prosperous international collaborations